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Male Infertility

Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40–50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men.[4] Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.


Immune infertility

Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples.[7] ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men.

Testicular Factors

Testicular factors refer to conditions where the testes produce sperm of low quantity and/or poor quality despite adequate hormonal support and include :


Varicocele, is a condition of swollen testicle veins.It is present in 15% of normal men and in about 40% of infertile men.

Tobacco Smoking

There is increasing evidence that the harmful products of tobacco smoking may damage the testicles[19] and kill sperm,[20][21] but their effect on male fertility is not clear.[22] Some governments require manufacturers to put warnings on packets. Smoking tobacco increases intake of cadmium, because the tobacco plant absorbs the metal. Cadmium, being chemically similar to zinc, may replace zinc in the DNA polymerase, which plays a critical role in sperm production. Zinc replaced by cadmium in DNA polymerase can be particularly damaging to the testes.

DNA Damage

Common inherited variants in genes that encode enzymes employed in DNA mismatch repair are associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility.[24] As men age there is a consistent decline in semen quality, and this decline appears to be due to DNA damage.[25] The damage manifests by DNA fragmentation and by the increased susceptibility to denaturation upon exposure to heat or acid, the features characteristic of apoptosis of somatic cells.[26] These findings suggest that DNA damage is an important factor in male infertility.


An increasing amount of recent evidence has been recorded documenting abnormal sperm DNA methylation in association with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility.

Post-testicular Causes

Post-testicular factors decrease male fertility due to conditions that affect the male genital system after testicular sperm production and include defects of the genital tract as well as problems in ejaculation :

1. Vas deferens obstruction
2. Lack of Vas deferens, often related to genetic markers for Cystic Fibrosis
3. Infection, e.g. prostatitis
4. Retrograde ejaculation
5. Ejaculatory duct obstruction
6. Hypospadias


Treatments vary according to the underlying disease and the degree of the impairment of the male fertility. Further, in an infertility situation, the fertility of the female needs to be considered.

Pre-testicular conditions can often be addressed by medical means or interventions.

Testicular-based male infertility tends to be resistant to medication. Usual approaches include using the sperm for intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or IVF with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection(ICSI). With IVF-ICSI even with a few sperm pregnancies can be achieved.

Obstructive causes of post-testicular infertility can be overcome with either surgery or IVF-ICSI. Ejaculatory factors may be treatable by medication, or by IUI therapy or IVF.

Vitamin E helps counter oxidative stress,[35]which is associated with sperm DNA damage and reduced sperm motility.[36] A hormone-antioxidant combination may improve sperm count and motility.[37] However there is only some low quality evidence from few small studies that oral antioxidants given to males in couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation for male factor or unexplained subfertility result in higher live birth rate. It is unclear if there are any adverse effects.

Hormonal Therapy

Administration of luteinizing hormone (LH) (or human chorionic gonadotropin) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is very effective in the treatment of male infertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.[39] Although controversial,[40] off-label clomiphene citrate, an antiestrogen, may also be effective by elevating gonadotropin levels.